Economics in the hottest product design

  • Detail

Economics in product design

what turns on the refrigerator, the refrigerator will light up, but the freezer will not

to answer this question, economists will inevitably compare the relevant costs and benefits. Whether it's in the freezer or in the refrigerator like ordinary plastic bags on the market, the cost of installing a light that will automatically light up when you open the door is almost the same. This is what economists call "fixed cost", which means that it does not change with the number of times you open and close the refrigerator door. In terms of income, there is a lamp in the cabinet, which makes it easier for you to find things. Since most people open the freezer many times more than the freezer, it is obvious that installing a light in the freezer has greater benefits. Therefore, since the cost of installing a lamp is the same, it is more cost-effective to install a lamp in the refrigerator than in the freezer according to the cost-benefit principle

of course, not all consumers think that installing a light in the freezer is not cost-effective. In general, if one is willing to pay for the benefits of such functions, the higher one's income, the more likely he is to pay for additional functions. Therefore, the cost-benefit principle tells us that in order to enjoy the convenience brought by the light in the freezer, consumers with super high income may be more willing to spend more money. right enough. The pro 48 refrigerator produced by sub zero, a high-end refrigerator manufacturer, not only installed lights in the freezer, but also installed lights on each floor of the separate bingri. How much does this refrigerator cost? $14450. Therefore, the pro 48 refrigerator of sub zero is another exception to prove the cost-effectiveness principle

why can notebook computers operate under the power supply standards of any country, but most other electrical appliances cannot

at present, the domestic electricity provided by the U.S. power system is 110 volts, and that of many countries is 220 volts. The power cord of the laptop has a built-in transformer, which enables the computer to operate normally under two standards. On the contrary, TVs and refrigerators can only operate under one standard. If you want to use American refrigerators in France, you must buy a separate transformer to convert France's 220 volt power supply to 110 volts. Similarly, when using Korean TV in the United States, you can only buy a transformer alone to convert the 110 volt power supply of the United States into 220 volts. Why can't these household appliances be used everywhere like notebook computers

transmitting 220 volts is slightly cheaper than 110 volts, but also slightly dangerous. Most countries have conducted extensive demonstration on which transmission system to adopt, and once a decision is made, the country will invest a lot of money in the selected system. Therefore, it is unrealistic to expect countries to use unified power supply standards in the near future. Therefore, people traveling across the country with electrical appliances need to find some ways to ensure that these appliances can be used under different power supply standards

building transformers in all electrical appliances can undoubtedly meet this demand, but doing so will increase the manufacturing cost of electrical appliances. Most refrigerators, washing machines, televisions and other electrical appliances may not have the opportunity to travel abroad, so the extra cost of installing built-in transformers for them is unreasonable

notebook computer is an exception, especially at the time of its birth. At that time, most of the people who bought notebook computers were business people who needed to take them on business trips at home and abroad. For these people, carrying heavy transformers on international flights is really an unacceptable burden. Therefore, notebook computer manufacturers have built transformers in computers from the beginning

why do convenience stores open 24 hours need locks

many convenience stores are open all year round. Since they never close the door, why bother to lock it

of course, there will always be emergencies, forcing convenience stores to close temporarily. For example, after Hurricane Katrina, residents of New Orleans were forced to evacuate unprepared. Obviously, if the convenience store has neither employees nor locks the door, it will definitely become a good prey for robbers

even if these emergencies that may close are eliminated, there is no benefit for convenience stores to buy unlocked doors

most industrial doors: industrial mass production doors—— Editor's note: they are sold to places that do not need 24-hour business. These places obviously have reason to hope that the door is locked. Therefore, since most industrial doors are sold with locks, it must be cheaper to make all doors in the same mode. This principle is the same as that all cash machines (even those installed on the roadside of the highway) have Braille on their keyboards. The following two examples show that sometimes the details of product design seem to have a certain relationship with geometric principles

why is milk sold in square boxes and coke sold in round bottles

almost all soft drink bottles, whether glass bottles or aluminum cans, are cylindrical. But the milk boxes seem to be square. Square containers can use shelf space more economically than cylindrical containers. So why do soft drink manufacturers insist on using cylindrical containers

one of the reasons may be that most soft drinks are drunk directly on containers. Therefore, because cylindrical containers are more called hands, the additional storage costs caused by them are offset. But milk is not like this, which can also bring better comfort. Most people don't drink milk directly in a box

if the milk container is cylindrical, we need a larger refrigerator

but even if most people drink milk directly in boxes, the cost-effectiveness principle also shows that they are unlikely to be sold in cylindrical containers. Yes, square containers (no matter what they contain) can indeed save shelf space, but the space saved in the case of milk is obviously more cost-effective than that in the case of soft drinks. Most soft drinks in supermarkets are placed on open shelves, which are cheap and usually have no operating costs. However, milk needs to be specially packed in freezers, which are expensive and have high operating costs. Therefore, the storage space in the freezer is quite valuable, which improves the income of filling milk in square containers

the production cost of aluminum cans could have been lower, but why don't people do that

the task of aluminum cans is to hold drinks. 12 ounces 1 ounce sold in most parts of the world =31.1039 grams—— Editor's note: aluminum cans are cylindrical, and their height (12 cm high) is about twice the width (6.5 cm in diameter). If you make this kind of can shorter and fatter, you can use a lot less aluminum. For example, a cylindrical aluminum can with a height of 7.8 cm and a diameter of 7.6 cm has the same capacity as the current standard cans, but it can use nearly 30% less aluminum. Since shorter cans cost less, why do people still use standard cans today

one of the possible explanations is that consumers will be misled by horizontal and vertical illusions. The so-called horizontal and vertical illusion is a famous optical illusion in psychology. For example, look at the horizontal bar and vertical bar in the figure below, which is longer? Most people will confidently say that it is long. But as long as you measure it, the horizontal and vertical bars are actually the same length

if the cans are shorter and fatter, a lot of aluminum can be saved

due to this illusion, consumers may not be willing to buy soft drinks in short and fat cans, feeling that they have small capacity. But this explanation seems to imply that the competitive pattern of the rival paper industry tends to be stable, giving up easy profit opportunities. In other words, if only optical illusion makes consumers unwilling to buy short and fat cans, competitors can provide such cans and clearly point out that the capacity of this container is exactly the same as that of the traditional cans. Since the production cost of short and fat cans is cheaper, beverage manufacturers selling such cans can offer slightly lower prices than traditional manufacturers, while offsetting their costs. Therefore, if there is only optical illusion, there will inevitably be easy profit opportunities that can be used by competitors

horizontal and vertical illusion: it seems that the vertical bar is long, but it is not

another possible explanation is that customers who buy soft drinks prefer the look of slender cans. Even if they know that the capacity of short and fat cans is the same, they still prefer to pay more for slender cans. The reason is the same as that they are willing to pay more for hotel rooms with better scenery

product design functions sometimes reflect the deliberate consideration of manufacturers: what impact different functions have on user behavior. For example, if someone doesn't want a speeding ticket, he may be willing to pay more for a car with a speeding warning function. The following two examples illustrate that the manufacturer's strategic decision on a certain design function (what impact this function will have on the use of the product) will be reflected in the product

why are the fuel filler holes of some cars on the driver's side and some cars on the co driver's side

one of the most frustrating experiences of renting a car is to drive your car as usual and park it in front of the oil pump, only to find that the fuel tank is on the other side of the body and the oil gun is out of reach. In fact, automobile manufacturers only need to set the fuel filler hole on one side of the car to solve this problem. But why don't they do that

in the United States and other countries where vehicles drive on the right, it is easier to turn right than left when crossing the street. Therefore, most companies have the opportunity to refuel at the gas station that can turn right and enter the station. Assuming that the fuel tank is always set on the driver's side of the car, in order to refuel, the driver must park the car on the right side of the fuel pump. As a result, during rush hours, all right-hand pumps will be crowded with cars, while most left-hand pumps are not used

therefore, the refueling holes of different models are set on different sides, which means that some cars can refuel from the left. So drivers don't have to wait in line to refuel. This benefit (benefit) is obviously much higher than the cost of accidentally stopping in the wrong direction when refuelling a rented car

if the filling holes are on the driver's side, the gas station will certainly have a long queue

in some cases, the product design should not only conform to the possible use mode of the product, but also affect what kind of information the product wants to express to users. The following two examples show that the information conveyed in a certain form is easier to be absorbed by people, or its cost is cheaper

why are the portraits on coins all side portraits, while the portraits on banknotes are front portraits

looking at the change in your pocket, you will find that the former president's head on the coin is a profile, Lincoln and Jefferson on the coin, Roosevelt, Washington and Kennedy on the coin, all with their faces sideways. But on the paper money in your wallet, you can't find the profile. Washington on a dollar bill, Lincoln on a five dollar bill, Hamilton on a ten dollar bill, Jackson on a twenty dollar bill, grant on a fifty dollar bill, and Franklin on a hundred dollar bill are all positive portraits. With few exceptions, the situation in other countries is the same: the side image on coins and the front image on paper money.

Copyright © 2011 JIN SHI